Category Archives: War 戦争

「週刊朝日」昭和16年9月14日号

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「週刊朝日」昭和16年9月14日号

もう何年前だったか渋谷の某神社で
開かれていた骨董市で買った3冊の「週刊朝日」
昭和16年9月14日号、12月28日号、昭和17年8月23日号

ちょうど74年前、昭和16年9月14日号
満州事変から10周年
そして明治維新から70年あまりが経過した頃の
「週刊朝日」記事の一部

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Syria 4 years on シリア4年後

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Syria 4 years on シリア4年後

英国では、Mother’s Day 母の日ですが、、、
Syrian Civil War シリア内戦の始まりとされている
抗議デモがダマスカス ( Damascus ) や アレッポ( Aleppo ) などで
起きた2011年3月15日から4年が経ちました。

Syria crisis: 4 years on│14 million children in danger

Syria crisis: Four years on│Safa’s story

BBC News | Syria ‘failed by UN Security Council’, say aid agencies

昨日、ロンドンでは抗議集会とデモ行進も。

Protest in London marking 4th anniversary of Syrian Civil War

当時、
東日本大震災に関する報道で連日、英紙の一面が独占されていたのが
シリアのニュースに切り替わっていたものの、原発事故が悪化し、
また「アラブの春」関連のニュースは、前年から、ずっと続いていたので
実は、あまり、シリアのニュースには注意を払っておりませんでした。
もともとは、平和的なデモであったのが、泥沼化し、
4年後、こんな状況になっているとは全く想像していなかったのです。

ところで
上のニュースのBBC超有名ジャーナリストJeremy Bowenが、先月
President Bashar al-Assad ( バッシャール・アル=アサド大統領 )に
インタビューをし、BBC Breakfastという朝のワイドショーから
BBC24ニュースチャンネルまで、その一部 ( 主に、樽爆弾の部分 ) が
繰り返し報道され、インタビュー全体も、BBC ニュースのサイトだけでなく
オンデマンドのBBC iPlayer、ついでYouTubeでも配信されました。

Syria conflict: BBC exclusive interview with President Bashar al-Assad (FULL)

30分近くあるので、通して全部見たのは一回だけで、
大雑把内容以外は忘れてしまっていたのですが、
全文字起こしが、下のサイトに、ありました。
しかも便利なことにジェレミー・ボーウェンの質問部分には
全て番号がふられています。

Syria President Assad interview with BBC – Full text

ちなみに、上の動画は、Question1 から始まります。

President Assad interview with BBC – Full text

President Bashar al-Assad has undertaken an interview with the BBC Middle East editor Jeremy Bowen. You can find the full interview on the BBC website here.

The full text of the interview as published on the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) is as follows:

“President al-Assad to BBC News: we are defending civilians, and making dialogue

10/02/2015

Interview given by H.E. President Bashar al-Assad to BBC News, following is the full text:

Welcome to a BBC News Special. I am Jeremy Bowen. I am in Damascus, in the Presidential Palace, the complex which overlooks Damascus city; and here we have been interviewing the president of Syria, Bashar al-Assad.

Question 1: Mr. President, you’ve lost control of large areas of Syria. The jihadist group that calls itself Islamic State has emerged. There are perhaps 200,000 Syrians dead, millions have lost their homes. The UN envoy Staffan de Mistura has called this the most serious humanitarian crisis in the world since the Second World War. Has Syria become a failed state?

President Assad: No, as long as the government and the state institutions are fulfilling their duty towards the Syrian people, we cannot talk about failed states. Talking about losing control is something completely different. It’s like if you have an invasion of terrorists coming from abroad, and the government is doing its job in fighting and defending its country.

Question 2: Can we briefly go back to when all this started in 2011? You said that there were mistakes made in the handling of those early demonstrations. Did you make mistakes yourself?

President Assad: No, I never said we made mistakes in handling this. I always say that anyone could make mistakes, but there’s a difference between-

Question 3: Did you make mistakes?

President Assad: There is a difference between talking, or asking your question, about policies and about practice. There’s a big difference. If we go back to polices, we took the decision to fight terrorism from the very beginning, we took the decision to make dialogue on the national level, and I think those policies are correct. While, if you want to talk about mistakes in practice and that some mistakes were committed towards some civilians, that happened from time to time, and some people were punished for these mistakes.

Question 4: But you didn’t make mistakes personally in the handling of the crisis?

President Assad: I said every person makes mistakes every day, otherwise if you deny the mistakes; you deny the human nature of the people.

Question 5: You talked about the influence of terrorism, as you called it, from the very beginning, but I was able as a reporter to go to some of those early demonstrations inside Damascus, in areas outside as well, and people there were not saying they wanted an Islamic caliphate. They were saying they wanted freedom, democracy, not the kind of vision that IS have now for the country. Do you think you’ve got it wrong?

President Assad: You in the West called it, at that time, and some still talk about that period as “peaceful-demonstration period” and I will tell you that during the first few weeks, many policemen were killed, shot dead. I don’t think they were shot dead and killed by the sound waves of the demonstrators. So, it was just a fantasy to talk about this. We have to talk about facts. From the very beginning, the demonstrations weren’t peaceful. Some who joined those demonstrations, they wanted democracy, that’s true, but that’s not the general case. This is first. Second, you’re talking about 140 – the highest number of demonstrations in one day, all over Syria – 140,000. Let’s make it one million, let’s say I’m minimizing the number. I’m not, but let’s say that. Make them one million. One million from 24 million Syrians is nothing.

Question 6: Now, in 2012, I spoke – I was in Duma which is a suburb of Damascus, as you know, which has been held by armed groups, armed rebel groups – and I spoke to a man there who said he defected from the Syrian Army and this is a quote, he said “I’ve escaped because I can’t see my people, my Syrian family, being killed by our hands,” and he meant the hands of the Syrian Armed Forces. Do you think that some of the activities of the Syrian Army helped create the nightmare that Syria is in right now?

President Assad: If you’re talking about the conflict taking the military shape, any war is a bad war, and in any war you have civilian casualties. That’s why every war is a bad war. So, you cannot talk about a benign war without casualties. It could have happened, but it was not policy. When you talk about governments, you talk about policy. What decisions we make on a political level? As I said; fighting terrorism, defending civilians, we are defending civilians, and making dialogue. And if we were the one who killed our people, as they said, how could we withstand four years while the people are against us, supposedly, and the West, and the regional countries, and I spent four years in my position with the government, with the army, with the institutions, without public support? That’s impossible. That’s mentally unpalatable.

Question 7: When you talk about terrorism versus what you represent, I mean, you know the accusation that has been made, that you have concentrated your forces in recent years against the non-jihadist parts of the armed resistance, the armed opposition to you, and that you have tried to give the Syrians, essentially, a false choice between you and between the likes of Al Qaeda and Islamic State, by trying to eliminate the middle ground. Perhaps it’s worked well as a political tactic, hasn’t it? Was that your idea?

President Assad: Anyway, Obama answered your question when he said a few months ago that waiting for, or depending on, what they called- the so-called moderate opposition, was a fantasy. It was but a dream. This is reality. So if I want to-

Question 8: They’re still trying to build up what they call this moderate opposition, aren’t’ they? But this time to fight against the Islamic State.

President Assad: But they said it’s a fantasy, he said it’s a fantasy, we all know it’s a fantasy. Even in the Western media outlets, they are talking about the ISIS, and al-Nusra, and Al Qaeda affiliates, organizations and groups prevailing. It doesn’t happen suddenly. It’s illogical, unrealistic to suddenly shift from moderate to extremist. They have the same grassroots.

Question 9: I’ve met some of those fighters, and they’ve said to me explicitly “we are not extremists, we are not Al Qaeda, we are not ISIS.” They’ve said “if Islamic State came here, they’d kill us.” I met one group last year, actually in Damascus, who said “we’d like a country a bit more like Malaysia or Turkey.” I mean, that is not jihadist, that is not dangerous, is it?

President Assad: So, why did the so-called moderate opposition evaporate? That is the question. If you have answered-

Question 10: Some say that’s because you’ve attacked them. Because you’ve killed them.

President Assad: Why didn’t we attack the extremists, like ISIS?

Question 11: That’s my question. Have you attacked them in the same force?

President Assad: You can say that the government and the President are shooting themselves in the foot. We ask the ISIS and al-Nusra to attack our military bases, to kill our soldiers, to kidnap our supporters, in order to eliminate the moderate opposition. Is that realistic? Nobody can accept it.

Question 12: I’ve spent time on the frontline with soldiers from the Syrian Army who insisted that they were patriotic, that they were patriots, they weren’t cold-blooded killers, but I’ve also interviewed people, and so have many other journalists and human rights people and so on, who say that they have suffered badly at the hands of Syrian soldiers. They can’t all have been lying, surely.

President Assad: How, how surely? Why are you sure?

Question 13: Well, because the weighted testimony, Human Rights Watch for example, 30th of January this year, has said that forces loyal to Bashar Assad, “have deliberately and viciously attacked civilians in opposition-held areas using indiscriminate weapons, notoriously barrel bombs.”

President Assad: This is a childish story they keep repeating in the West.

Question 14: It’s childish?

President Assad: Childish. Why? Again, if somebody who’s against his people, and against the regional powers, and the great powers, and the West, and survives, how? If you kill the Syrian people, do they support you, or do they become against you? As long as you have the public support, it means that you are defending the people. If you kill the people, they will be against you. That’s common logic, common sense.

Question 15: What about barrel bombs? You don’t deny that your forces use them?

President Assad: I know about the army. They use bullets, missiles, and bombs. I haven’t heard of an army using barrels or maybe cooking pots.

Question 16: Large barrels full of explosives and projectiles which are dropped from helicopters, and explode with devastating effect. There’s been a lot of testimony about this thing.

President Assad: They are called bombs. We have bombs, missiles, and bullets.

Question 17: But you wouldn’t deny that, included under the category of bombs, are these barrel bombs, which are indiscriminate weapons?

President Assad: No, there are no indiscriminate weapons. When you shoot, you aim, and when you aim, you aim at terrorists in order to protect civilians. Again, if you’re talking about casualties, that’s war. You cannot have war without casualties.

Question 18: There are always casualties in war, and civilians die as well, but it is the responsibility under international humanitarian law for belligerents from both sides to do everything they can to protect civilians, and the accusation against the Syrian Army is that by using barrel bombs, indiscriminate weapons – and Staffan de Mistura, again, the UN envoy, he’s talked about the constant fear of barrel bombs – means that you are not respecting humanitarian law by protecting your own people. What do you say to that?

President Assad: First of all, we’ve been attacked in Damascus and in Aleppo, we’ve been attacked by rebels, not vice versa. They’ve been attacking the Syrians with mortars, so you have to retaliate and defend your people. That’s self-evident. Second, again, you are talking about somebody, the government, who is killing its people, and the people supporting the government. This is contradiction. There’s no logic. But answer, how can you have support and kill people at the same time?

Question 19: Of course you have many supporters among part of the Syrian population, but in areas held by the rebels, the accusation is your people have used indiscriminate weapons which they may well have attacked places where there are armed rebels, but because there are civilians there, civilians have also died, and if you used less indiscriminate weapons, like barrels bombs, then this kind of thing would not be happening.02

President Assad: During the war, you can have any kind of incrimination, any kind of allegations, every party could blame the others, but you have to talk about the reality. The families of those fighters, they came to the government in order to have refuge, not vice versa. You can go now and see where they live and who takes care of them. If we would kill civilians, civilians should have fled to the other side, not come to us.

Question 20: Now, if you stopped barrel bombing, and it does happen, would you not help your own case internationally? There are people now who are saying that you are a potential partner in the fight against the Islamic State and that you could be part of the solution, not part of the problem, and it would be quite an easy thing, wouldn’t it, simply to order your generals, to say “look, no more of these attacks,” and that would be… that would no doubt would improve your international standing, would it not?

President Assad: So, the first part of your question is about asking us to stop fulfilling our duty to defend our people against the terrorists?

Question 21: So, that’s legitimate use of force?

President Assad: Of course.

Question 22: Including barrel bombs?

President Assad: There are no barrel bombs.

Question 23: You don’t have barrel bombs at all?

President Assad: We don’t have barrels. Again, it’s like talking about cooking pots. So, we don’t have cooking pots. We only have, like any regular army, we have bombs, we have missiles, we have bullets, and etcetera.

Question 24: You’ve given up your chemical weapons arsenal, but as you know that this last week, the international organization which disposed of the weapons, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, condemned the use of chlorine gas here in Syria, saying with a high degree of confidence it was used last summer, not blaming any side, but saying that at the same time as these attacks, 32 out of 37 people interviewed said they heard or seen helicopters near the village. Now, the armed groups, the rebels, don’t have helicopters. Your side has helicopters. Have they been using chlorine gas to attack?

President Assad: Chlorine gas exists in any factory, in any house in Syria, in anywhere in the world. It’s not a military material.

Question 25: It can be militarized.

President Assad: Anything can be militarized. This is first-

Question 26: Is chlorine gas being militarized?

President Assad: Second, if you want to use gas as a WMD, you have to talk about thousands or maybe tens of thousands of victims in a few hours. That didn’t happen in Syria. Third, we could with our ordinary armaments-

Question 27: It did happen, last summer, in August of the previous year, 2013, of course.

President Assad: Who verified who threw that gas on who? Who verified the numbers?

Question 28: Your side didn’t do that attack?

President Assad: No. definitely not. We were close to the degree that we could affect ourselves. Second, the number of the victims wasn’t as they exaggerated in the media. So it’s not a WMD, it’s not about gas, it’s something… we don’t know what it is, because we didn’t exist in that region.

Question 29: So you’re not using chlorine gas?

President Assad: No, definitely not.

Question 30: On the fight against the Islamic State and Al Qaeda, the U.S. and others have said you cannot be a partner in that fight. Would you like to be a partner, would you like to join-

President Assad: Partner with who?

Question 31: Partner with the countries that are attacking Islamic State at the moment.

President Assad: Do you mean the alliance?

Question 32: The Jordanians-

President Assad: No, definitely, we cannot, and we don’t have the will, and we don’t want, for one simple reason; because we cannot be in an alliance with a country who supports terrorism.

Question 33: Which country?

President Assad: Because you are fighting terrorism. Those countries who make up the alliance, mainly most of them, support terrorism.

Question 34: You’ve been very harsh in your criticism of the Saudis. Now, the Saudis say they are against Islamic State. They are frightened of Islamic State because Islamic State do not want a royal family in Saudi Arabia, so isn’t it logical that they want them out? Why would they support them?

President Assad: First of all, the source of this Islamic State ideology and other Al Qaeda-affiliated groups is the Wahabis that are being supported by the royal family in Saudi Arabia. So, just to say that we do and we don’t, this doesn’t matter; it’s what you do, what is the action you are taking in order to prove that what you are saying is correct.

Question 35: So, you are saying then that the Saudis bear a high degree of responsibility for the emergence of these ideologies and of these armed groups.

President Assad: Definitely, there’s no question

Question 36: So, why have they rounded up and imprisoned so many Al Qaeda sympathizers inside Saudi Arabia itself?

President Assad: I think what they think is that once it’s going to be their turn, because the society in that kingdom is more inclined to be ISIS and to accept such ideologies as the Islamic State, that’s why.

Question 37: Let’s talk about American attitudes. Your departure from office is still official American policy, but there are signs that they are softening. Secretary of State John Kerry recently said that instead of saying… he said that you should change your policies, that it’s time for President Assad to put the people first, think about the consequences. So, is that a lifeline that he’s offering? Is he softening in his attitude? Do you believe that you are now being seen as part of the solution?05

President Assad: First of all, we don’t breathe through the Americans, we only breathe through our citizens. That’s how we breathe. This is first. So, it’s not a lifeline for us. Second, it depends on what he means by changing… what has he said? What’s the word?

Question 38: Put the people first, think about the consequences of their actions. This is seen as a softening because in the past, they’ve said “first of all, Assad must go.”

President Assad: So, second, it depends on what Kerry meant by his statement, or any other official. It’s not about him as a person. Whatever they say, doesn’t mean for us to be puppets. Whatever they say, for us it’s about being independent, to work for our interest, to work for the common interest of others, but we’ll never be puppets who work against our interests for their interests. So you have to ask them what they meant by that statement.

Question 39: But you must… surely… Syria has been very isolated. You’re under sanctions here, people can’t use credit cards, you’ve been cut off from a lot of the commerce of the world. I mean, you must surely welcome a situation which might get you back into the family of nations in a way that you haven’t been since 2011.

President Assad: We’re not against cooperation with any country, we’ll never be. We didn’t start this conflict with the others. They started, they supported terrorists, they gave them the umbrella. It’s not about isolating Syria now; it’s about embargo on the Syrian population or the Syrian citizens. It’s different from isolation. It’s completely different.

Question 40: Do you talk to the Americans? There are American planes in the air above Syria the whole time. Do you coordinate?

President Assad: No, because they don’t talk to anyone unless he’s a puppet, and they easily trampled over the international law, which is about our sovereignty now. So, they don’t talk to us, we don’t talk to them.

Question 41: But I’m curious, that at a time when there are… there’s the American military in the air above Syria, and your people are in the air, your air force, the Syrian air force, is in the air above Syria, that there haven’t been any incidents between the two. No shots seem to have been traded, no planes have been shot down. That suggests to me surely that someone is talking to someone here.01

President Assad: That’s correct, but again, there’s no direct cooperation.

Question 42: Direct? Is it via Iraq? That’s what some people say.

President Assad: Through third parties, more than one party, Iraq and other countries. Sometimes they convey messages, general messages, but there’s nothing tactical.

Question 43: So, they don’t tell you “we’re going to be bombing at Raqqa at 10 o’clock this evening, please keep out of the way?”

President Assad: We knew about the campaign before it’s started, but we didn’t know about the details.

Question 44: And is that a continuing dialogue that you have through third parties?

President Assad: There’s no dialogue. There’s, let’s say, information. But not dialogue.

Question 45: They tell you things?

President Assad: Something like this.

Question 46: Do you tell them things?

President Assad: No.

Question 47: And apart from Iraq, which other countries-

President Assad: When we do something in our territory, or on our territory, we don’t ask anyone, we don’t tell anyone. We just do it.

Question 48: You don’t say, “Look, if you see Syrian helicopters over a certain area at this hour, please don’t shoot them down?”

President Assad: No. That’s I mean, there’s no tactical cooperation, or through third party cooperation.

Question 49: Does the bombing of IS benefit your government? Chuck Hagel, the former U.S. Defense Secretary, certainly said that the bombing benefitted you, and he resigned shortly after he said that. Do you feel safer as a result of the fact that the Americans are helping you take care of your enemies?

President Assad: That question is contradicting with the first question when you said that we were supporting ISIS in order to get rid of the moderates. If we are against ISIS, we don’t support ISIS. So, this question is more realistic. Yes, it will have some benefits, but if it was more serious and more effective and more efficient. It’s not that much.

Question 50: Can we talk about the humanitarian situation a little bit? One of the effective military tactics your… the Syrian Army has used, is to isolate areas held by rebels, and effectively to starve them out. But that has had the effect also to starve the civilians, and that, again, is against the laws of war, starving civilians.

President Assad: That’s not correct for one reason, because in most of the areas where the rebels took over, the civilians fled and came to our areas, so in most of the areas that we encircle and attack are only militants.

Question 51: They may have come to your areas, not because they want to come, but because their areas are being heavily bombed. I’ve been in some of the suburbs of Damascus, which are a huge contrast to here in the center, where sometimes rubble, you know, 20 meters high. And no wonder people want to get out of there.

President Assad: No, that’s not realistic for one reason, because the natural reaction of any person, of the people, of the families, of the population, is to flee from any area where they expect a conflict. That’s why they flee that area, because they expect fighting between the army and the militants. They flee that area, and they come to the government.

Question 52: It is the case though, that your government has restricted the supply of medicines to rebel-held areas. Elizabeth Hoff, Syria representative of the World Health Organization, said at the end of last year that the government is restricting what is sent to rebel-held areas. Do you accept that is a problem for the civilians who are still in those areas?

President Assad: You know the northern city of al-Raqqa, that’s been taken over by al-Nusra first then later ISIS, you know that?

Question 53: Yeah.

President Assad: You know that till this moment, we still send them food and medicines and everything. So how can we do it for any other area in Syria?

Question 54: Valerie Amos, who is the UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, said in a statement to the UN Security Council in the end of January of this year, that… she criticized very harshly what Islamic State and others are doing, but she also said the government’s failing, she said, for example, last year, there were 16 requests for aid convoys, 8 convoys, into Eastern Ghouta, near Damascus, only 4 were carried out, the other 12 requests were, “unanswered, denied, or subject to conditions that could not be accommodated.” And so, for them, that adds up to the Syrian government blocking aid convoys to civilians in those areas.

President Assad: These same areas are shelling Damascus every day. The same area that she’s talking about. How can we prevent them from food, and we cannot prevent them from having armaments?

Question 55: What are you saying, that they should bring in food themselves rather than just shells?

President Assad: No, I mean that if we can prevent the food from accessing those areas, can’t we prevent the armaments from accessing the same areas? How can we allow the armaments to cross?

Question 56: I don’t know how you run the war, but what I said, the UN is saying-

President Assad: Yes, that’s what I’m asking. I’m just pointing to the contradictions in their statements, just to know. If you can prevent food from accessing, you can prevent armaments, and definitely the priority for us as a government is to prevent the armaments from crossing.

Question 57: So, if civilians suffer as a result of the lack of these convoys, that for you is unavoidable, collateral damage?

President Assad: No, we are talking about unrealistic, non-objective statements. We cannot discuss it as a fact. You know, this is part of the propaganda against Syria for the last four years. So, whenever Amos or any other official or any other organization says something against us, it doesn’t mean it’s real. We have to verify what they say, and is it part of the propaganda, is it politicized, or what.

Question 58: Do you see yourself as the great survivor now of Middle Eastern leaders? President Obama called for you to step down as early as 2011. In 2013, there were lots of reports that you fled to a Russian warship in the Mediterranean, but you’re still here, your family is still here. Do you think that, looking back on it, that you’ve had a lucky escape?

President Assad: No, for one reason; because it wasn’t about me, to survive, it was about Syria, it was about terrorism, it was about changing the state and president because they don’t like the state or the president, they don’t like their polices. That’s what this is about. It’s not a personalized problem, they want to personalize it to link everything to the president.

Question 59: But what a price to pay! Syria is in ruins, there are hundreds of thousands of people dead. You’ve been the commander, you must bear command responsibility for some of that.

President Assad: Yes, according to the constitution and according to the ethics of your job, it is your duty to protect your country when it’s under attack, not to flee and run away, and that’s what we’ve been doing.

Question 60: I spoke a teacher who comes from Qaboun, which is an area which is being held by the rebels, after her school was hit, and she said the shelling is coming from the Syrian Army side. She said it’s the president’s responsibility to keep children out of this war. It’s okay for him to fight the terrorists, but what have children done to deserve this? They don’t have weapons. He needs, both sides she said, but he needs to stop shelling the schools. What is your message to her?

President Assad: What is the aim of shelling schools, realistically? Why would a government shell a school? What do we gain from that?

Question 61: Have you shelled schools?

President Assad: Why? No, definitely not. Why? Because we don’t have an interest. Put aside the duty, put aside the morals of the issue, talk realistically: what is the aim of any army to shell a school?

Question 62: Do you deny any-

President Assad: The government is going to pay to rebuild the school. We’re still paying to maintain the destroyed schools. How can we shell schools? Why do you want to kill students and children? What do we get?

Question 63: You’d say that teacher had the wrong idea?

President Assad: Again, it’s different between having casualties during the war, because that’s a war, and every war in the world has these side effects, and between aiming at schools. That’s the big difference. There’s no way to aim at schools.

Question 64: What keeps you awake at night?

President Assad: What keeps me awake at night? Many reasons that could affect any human. Life. Could be personal, could be work.

Question 65: Your job?

President Assad: Could be the job, could be personal, like anyone, I’m human. Anything could affect any human, I’m human; I will be affected by the same factors.

Question 66: Have you thought about those casualties, and felt or understood the pain of their families and of the people wounded and killed and injured?

President Assad: This is something we live in every day. Whether they are from the opposition, from the other side, or whether they are supporters, we live with it. We are humans, we live with casualties, with the death issues on daily basis. There are families who lost their dear ones, I lost members of my family, I lost friends, I lost people I work with. This is something we live with every day in pain.

Question 67: President Assad, thank you very much.

President Assad: Thank you”

http://tradebridgeconsultants.com/news/government/president-assad-interview-with-bbc-full-text/
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Bombing of Tokyo 英紙が伝える東京大空襲70周年 (追記3)

Video
Bombing of Tokyo 英紙が伝える東京大空襲70周年 (追記3)

今日、3月10日は東京大空襲の日。
東京生まれ育ちの私にとっては非常に重要な日でございます。
今年は70周年にあたるためか、英国の新聞でも取り上げられ
しかも、その内容が、かなり深く詳しく、また、東京大空襲が
原爆にも値する被害にもかかわらず、世界から忘れられてしまっている
と報道しているので、驚きました。

まずは、「高級紙」インディペンデント
( 記事全文をコピペし、ざっと意訳を付けます。)

On the 70th anniversary of Tokyo’s fire bombing, relatives are asking for a real tribute to its victims
東京大空襲70周年、遺族達が求める真摯な慰霊

It was just after midnight when the rumble of B-29 bombers was heard, jolting Tokyo awake. The incendiaries that fell from their bellies, full of jelly petroleum, were like nothing anyone had ever seen.
They turned canals and rivers into flame and if the jelly stuck to you, it kept burning till flesh turned to bone. “The planes filled the sky like dragonflies,” recalls Michiko Kiyoka. “Everywhere you looked there were charred bodies.”
真夜中をちょっと過ぎた頃、B-29爆撃機の音が東京の街を起こした。
機体の腹から落とされるジェリー状の石油がつまった焼夷弾、
それは、これまでとは全く違った。
焼夷弾は、上水や河川を火の海に変え、焼夷弾のジェリーが身体にひっつくと
肉体を骨まで焼き尽くした。
「爆撃機は、トンボの様に、空を埋め尽くしていました。」
と、清田ミチコさんは回想する。
「どこを見ても、真っ黒焦げになった遺体だらけでした。」

Today, Ms Kiyoka, now 91, will join a small group of elderly Tokyoites and mark the death of her father and sister in the 1945 firebombing, which killed about 100,000 people in the single night of 10 March.
今日、91歳になる清田さんは、高齢の東京都民による小さなグループと一緒に、
3月10日の一夜だけで10万人もを殺した1945年の空襲で亡くなった父と姉妹の死を記念する。

Tokyo Now and After The Air Raid

Because men of fighting age were away, most of the victims were women, the elderly and children. A US survey later concluded that probably more people lost their lives during the raid by 300 bombers than at any single moment in history.
兵役年齢の男性は召集されていたため、犠牲者の大部分は
女性、老人、子どもであった。
ある米国の調査は、後に、この300体の爆撃機の空爆による
瞬間的な犠牲者数は史上最大であっただろうとの結論を出した。

The Tokyo bombing opened the curtain on an orgy of destruction in the final months of the Second World War that included dozens of similar raids on Japanese cities, and culminated in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August. When the droning of bombers stopped on 15 August, almost 70 cities had been reduced to rubble and perhaps half a million people were dead.
東京大空襲は、第二次世界大戦末期の数ヶ月にわたる破壊の祭りの幕を開けた。
日本の他の十数都市も空爆を受け、ついに8月、広島そして長崎への原爆投下へと達したのであった。
8月15日、爆撃機のプロペラ音が止んだ時には、
70近くの都市が瓦礫の山と化し、おそらく50万人が命を落とした。

Some thought that Imperial Japan, like Nazi Germany, deserved retribution for the bombing of Shanghai and Chongqing, the Rape of Nanjing and other war atrocities across Asia. But others asked where had the moral high ground gone since US President Franklin D Roosevelt described the 1940 Nazi blitzkrieg of British cities as “inhuman barbarism”?
上海や重慶への空爆や南京大虐殺、そして
アジア諸国で残虐行為をはたらいた大日本帝国は、
ドイツのナチスの様に、その報いを受けるに値すると考える人々もいる。
しかし、1940年のナチスによる英国各都市への空爆を
フランクリン・D・ルーズベルト大統領が
非人道的な野蛮行為と表現していた頃はあったはずの
敵よりも優れていたはずのモラルは、いったい、
どこへ行ってしまったのだと問う人々もいるのだ。

If the bombing of Dresden a month earlier than Tokyo had produced a ripple of public debate in Europe, “no discernible wave of revulsion took place in the US or Europe in the wake of the far greater destruction of Japanese cities”, wrote Mark Selden, a historian at Cornell University.
東京の一ヶ月前に行われたドレスデン空襲は、ヨーロッパで
徐々に論議の輪を広げていったが、
「ドレスデンよりも遥かに壊滅的であった日本の都市への空爆について
アメリカでもヨーロッパでも嫌悪感が波立つ音は聞こえなかった」
と、コーネル大学の歴史学者Mark Seldenは書いている。

Yet today, unlike Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there is no publicly funded museum in Japan’s capital to commemorate the night of 10 March. The Tokyo government, urged on by a small group of private citizens, began compiling an incomplete list of victims in 2010. A small memorial squeezed into a corner of Yokoamicho Park in the city contains their names, next to a charnel house with the mixed ashes of thousands who died.
それなのに、広島や長崎とは異なり、
こんにち、日本の首都に、公的資金によって建てられた
3月10日の夜を追悼する博物館は存在しない。
東京都庁は、少数の民間人によるグループの度重なる要請により
2010年に、やっと、未完成であった犠牲者リストの編纂に作手した。
何千もの犠牲者の骨灰が混じり合った納骨堂の横、
横網町公園の隅っこに押しやられた小さな記念碑に
犠牲者の名前は刻まれている。

Tokyo Now and After The Air Raid

German Chancellor Angela Merkel today reminded Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of the need to face up to the past. In a speech in Tokyo, Ms Merkel said those who close their eyes to history are “blind to the present”, a quote from a famous speech by the late German president Richard von Weizsacker.
ドイツのアンゲラ・メルケル首相は、今日、安倍晋三総理大臣に
過去の歴史に向かい合う必要性を説いた。
東京での演説で、メルケル首相は、
歴史に目を瞑る者は「現在にも盲目である」と
故リヒャルト・フォン・ヴァイツゼッカー大統領の有名なスピーチから引用した。

Tokyo lacked the emotional or financial resources to properly mourn the victims after the war, says Bret Fisk, a Tokyo-based novelist who writes about the 1945 raids. Later, there was no appetite for a political fight with Washington, Japan’s new Cold War ally. Remarkably, Japan awarded the architect of the 1945 raids, US General Curtis LeMay, its highest prize in 1964 for helping to reconstruct Japan’s Self-Defence Forces after the war.
東京には、戦後、精神的にも経済的にも犠牲者をきちんと悼む余裕が無かったと、
東京に居住し1945年の空襲について執筆中の小説家ブレット・フィスク氏は語る。
その後は、冷戦時代の仲間であるアメリカ政府と政治的に争う気にはならなかったのだ。
驚くことには、日本は、1945年の空襲を企画した米国陸軍大将カーチス・ルメイに、
戦後1964年、日本の航空自衛隊育成に協力があったかどで
勲一等旭日大綬章を授与している。

Plans for a museum became bogged down in controversy in the 1990s. Conservatives said the plans were “anti-Japanese and “self-masochistic”. The decision infuriated survivors. Tokyo had no stomach for reminding people of the horrors of war, said survivor Katsumoto Saotome, who was 12 when the bombers arrived. He set up a private fund to build the Centre of the Tokyo Raids and War Damage, and helped launch a lawsuit for compensation. The suit was dismissed in 2009; government lawyers said that since Japanese civilians had equally experienced severe hardship during a time of national emergency, no particular group could receive special treatment, says Cary Karacas, a specialist on aerial bombing at the City University of New York.
記念博物館の計画は1990年代に論争の中、行き詰まった。
保守派は、その計画が、反日であり、自虐的だと言い、
その決定に、生存者達は激怒した。
東京には、人々に戦争の恐ろしさを忘れさせないようにする度量が無いのだ、と
爆撃機が現れた当時12歳だった早乙女勝元氏は語る。
氏は、一般市民の募金を募り
東京大空襲・戦災資料センターを開設し、また、
賠償訴訟を起こす手伝いもした。
訴訟は2009年に却下された。
政府側の弁護士が、日本国民全員が等しく国家の非常時に艱難辛苦の
体験をしたのであって、一部の集団だけが、特別な計らいを受けることはできない、
と主張したからだと、ニューヨーク市立大学の空爆スペシャリストCary Karacasさんは言う。

The dwindling band of survivors of the Great Tokyo Air Raid met at the weekend to demand the event is properly memorialised. Mr Saotome says he accepts they face an uphill fight. He says that after all these years, he still doesn’t even like to say the say the figure of 100,000 people out loud – it’s too impossibly large.
年々減っていく東京大空襲の生存者たちは、
大空襲が、きちんと、追悼記念されるようにと、この週末に寄り会う。
早乙女氏は、厳しい戦いに面しているのはわかっている、と言う。
氏は、語る。
これだけの年月が過ぎても10万人という数を声に出して言う事が出来ない、と。
あまりにも莫大な数すぎるのだ。

“They were all individuals,” he said. “They had all been talking to their families hours before they died.”
「それは、みんな、一人一人の人なんですよ。
亡くなる数時間前まで普通に家族と喋っていたんですよ。」

***

東京大空襲・戦災資料センター
http://www.tokyo-sensai.net

***

Great Tokyo Air Raid

驚いたのは、女性に人気の大衆紙Daily Mailでも
空襲直後と現在の比較写真や動画に、
数人の生存者の体験談を豊富に加えて大きく報道していたこと

The bombing raid that killed more than Nagasaki – and the world forgot:
Then-and-now pictures reveal the night 100,000 died in massive US firebomb attack on Tokyo

「長崎原爆より多くの犠牲者を出しながら世界に忘れられていた空襲:
当時と現在の比較写真が明かす米軍による東京大空襲で10万人が死んだ夜」

– Exactly 70 years ago, more than 100,000 people were killed in a Tokyo air strike during the Second World War
– Came as U.S. bombers dumped cluster bombs and destroyed a fifth of the Japanese capital in just one night
– The attack was more deadly than Nagasaki but received little attention as Tokyo rebuilt itself quickly after the war
– New then and now pictures have been released showing how Japan recovered following Second World War

・70年前の今日、第二次世界大戦 東京大空襲で10万人以上が殺された
・米軍爆撃機の落としたクラスター爆弾は日本の首都東京の1/5を破壊
・長崎よりも破壊的な攻撃だったにもかかわらず戦後東京が迅速に復興したため殆ど注目されなかった
・新たに公開された当時と現在の比較写真から見る第二次大戦後の東京の回復

( 記事の一部のコピペに意訳を付けます )
Where earlier raids targeted aircraft factories and military facilities, the Tokyo firebombing was aimed largely at civilians, in places including Tokyo’s downtown Shitamachi area, where people lived in traditional wood and paper homes at densities sometimes exceeding 100,000 people per square mile.
これ以前の空襲は、軍需工場や施設を攻撃目標としていたが
東京大空襲の標的は殆どが、木造家屋が立ち並び場所によっては1平方マイル10万人が暮らすほど人口密度の高いに下町の一般市民であった。

The bombing campaign set a military precedent for targeting civilian areas that persisted into the Korean and Vietnam wars and beyond. But the non-atomic attacks have been largely overlooked.
この空襲が前例となり、朝鮮戦争やベトナム戦争でも引き続き
一般市民の暮らす地域が攻撃の対象となってしまったが
原爆以外の攻撃は殆ど注目されなかった。

Around 334 bombers were used in the raid and exhausted residents chose to pull blankets over their heads and sleep when air-raid sirens blew instead of heading to shelters turned icy by an unusually cold winter.
This meant that there was huge human carnage with the smell of burning flesh even making the pilots grab oxygen masks to stop themselves from vomiting.
空襲には334体の爆撃機が参戦し、疲労困憊していた市民達は
空襲警報が鳴っても、平年よりも寒い冬の凍える防空壕に行くより
布団の中に、頭ごと、もぐりこんで眠ることを選んだのだった。
そのため、大殺害の規模は甚大となり、肉体の燃える匂いに、
爆撃機の操縦士は酸素マスクを被って、吐き気を抑えるほどだった。

***

Bombing of Tokyo

一方、
高級紙 テレグラフの記事は、「ガラスのウサギ」作者 高木敏子さんへの
インタビューを中心に、美しい桜の花とお花見宴会の様子
( 桜の季節の日本旅行ガイド記事へのリンク付き)と
その桜の木の下に埋まっている犠牲者を対比させています。

Bombing of Tokyo: The mass graves under the cherry blossom – Telegra
「東京大空襲 : 桜の花の下の共同墓地 」

記事の〆コピペと大意
Printed in 1977, Mrs Takagi’s book that recounts her experiences as a child, as well as a plea against any further wars, is called The Glass Rabbit.
Translated into eight languages, the book has sold nearly three million copies around the world and Mrs Takagi has given 1,657 lectures.
“It was madness that Japan kept fighting after Italy and then Germany surrendered,” she said. “I want the world to know what happened here in Tokyo. And I want people to know that when a nation has poor leaders, lots of people will die. And that’s as true today as it was 70 years ago.”

高木さんが子ども時代の体験と二度と戦争を起こさない様にとの願いを綴った
著書は「ガラスのうさぎ」は8ヶ国語に翻訳され世界中で300万冊近くが売れ
高木さんの講演は1657回に上る。
「イタリアとドイツが降参した後に日本が戦い続けたのは狂気です。
私は、世界中に、ここ東京で何が起こったか知らせたいのです。
そして、人々に、知っていただきたいのは、国のリーダーがダメだと
多くの人が死ぬということです。それは、70年前でも今でも同じなのです。」

***

BBC News | WWII fire bombing of Tokyo by US remembered 70 years on

東京大空襲から70年 語り継ぐ記憶の取り組みを取材しました。(15/03/09)

昭和天皇、東京大空襲後の御視察/Great Tokyo Air Raid

東京大空襲・新事実 Bombing of Tokyo : New Foundlings

***

【おすすめの本】

東京大空襲を忘れない – 瀧井宏臣

小学校高学年くらいから読める様にフリガナ付きでありながら
大人の読み物としても遜色ない様々な生存者の体験記録をまとめた本。
著者のお母様の住んでいらした所と通っていた小学校が
偶然、完全に私個人と重なるので驚くとともに、
一層、体験談が心に沁みました。

IMG_0458-0

***

こちらのサイトも、ぜひ、どうぞ

東京大空襲 写真紀行

拡大閲覧には、ご注意ください

Bombing of Tokyo

東京大空襲も戦災も戦争体験も,絶対、風化させないこと
体験者が日々減るなか、次世代に引き継ぐことの重要さを痛感します。

【追記1】
上に、BBCのニュース動画を貼りました。
下のリンク先からも同じ動画を見れます。

WWII fire-bombing of Tokyo by US remembered 70 years on
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-31809257

【追記2】
Japan: Tokyo WWII firebombing marks 70th anniversary

【追記3】
GHQから守った戦禍写真=東京大空襲撮影の石川さん-遺族「若い人に見てほしい」

【追記4】
「東京大空襲」から70年 どんな空襲だったのか 早稲田塾講師・坂東太郎のよくわかる時事用語

Dresden大空襲とPEGIDAルポFRANCE24動画 (日英仏語)

Video
Dresden大空襲とPEGIDAルポFRANCE24動画 (日英仏語)

昨日は
Dresden Bombing 70 Years On
ドレスデン大空襲70周年
Victor Gregg BBC Breakfast Interview
( https://canarin.wordpress.com/dresden/ )


上記ページに、当時、英国人捕虜としてドレスデン空爆を生き抜いた
Victor Gregg ビクター・グレッグさん ( 95歳 )の
昨日 朝のワイドショー BBC Breakfast での
心を揺さぶられるインタビュー動画( 英語 )を貼りました。

兵士として数々の戦場を体験したグレッグさんにとってさえ
この老若男女が犠牲になった空襲の惨状は衝撃で
その後、40年間は、笑うこともできなかったそうです。
火災による竜巻が起きて、女性や子どもも焼けながら
その空中に巻き上がったっていった、というグレッグさんの
話を聞いた時、東京大空襲の話を思い出さずにはいられませんでした。

Dresden Bombing 70 Years On

そのDresden (ドレスデン )では、去年の10月以降、毎週、
ムスリム移民によるドイツ社会のイスラム化を脅威とする
PEGIDA = Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes
( 西欧諸国のイスラム化に反対する愛国ヨーロッパ人 )
の抗議集会が開かれているのですが
France 24 ニュースチャンネルの
「Ligne Directe / Observer Direct 」という視聴者参加型の
ドキュメンタリー番組で、PEGIDA運動が取り上げられていました。
番組に呼びかけたのはドイツ東部のドレスデン在住の
Marvin Kalima ( マーヴィン・カリマ ) さん
レポーターは、Julien Pain ( ジュリアン・ペン ) さん。

動画の後に、日本語訳 ( 意訳 ) を、つけました。

フランス語版
Allemagne : Pegida, la haine en marche ? #LigneDirecte

英語版
Pegida: Hatred on the march

Marvin Kalimaさん ( MK ) :
毎週、日曜日、難民対象のサッカーの試合を開いてます。
人気ですよ。
ドレスデンには、難民向けのレジャー活動が殆ど無いので
始めたんです。
PEGIDAが作られてから、ドイツ人は、難民に対して
公然と敵意を示すようになりました。
そして、最近は、ますます悪化しています。
ドレスデンには人種差別が多いんです。
偏見も多いですし、亡命希望者に対してだけじゃなく、
他の( マイノリティ ) コミュニティに対してもあります。

Marvin Kalima, France 24, Dresden

ナレーション :
ここの難民の多くはシリアから来ました。
ドイツ政府が、紛争地域からの難民の受け入れを表明して以来
亡命申請の数が、かなり増えました。
この亡命者用アパートには、8人のシリア人が入居させられています。
4ヶ月前に亡命申請をしたものの、まだ、審査を待っている状態です。

Asylum Seekers, Dresden

[ 亡命者用アパート ]

Mohammad Zhouri シリア亡命者:
ベルリンに着いてから、すぐに、難民センターに行きました。
そこで、私の詳細がコンピューターに入力され、
違う街に送られ、そこのシェルターに1ヶ月滞在し、
それからドレスデンに送られました。

Mohammad Zhouri, Dresden

Julien Pain ( JP ) :
それでは、ドイツ人が、あなたをここに移したのですね。
ドレスデンには来たくありませんでしたか?

MZ :
はい。でも、選択肢は無かったんです。

FADI シリア人亡命者 ( 匿名 ) :
おおかたの人はフレンドリーだし親切なんですよ。
でも、人種差別者もいるんです。
こんなこと言いたくないんですが、本当に差別なんです。
このあいだ、市街電車(トラム) の停留所で、ドイツ人の男性が
「アラブ人はトラムに乗れないんだ!」
って、怒鳴っていました。
僕達は、生活保護を受けながら家でダラダラするために、
ここに来たんじゃありません。
働いて、ドイツ経済に貢献したいんです。

FADI, Syrian refugee

ナレーション:
PEGIDA運動は、難民を標的にしています。
難民とドイツのイスラム化が最大の恐怖なのです。
しかし、実は、ムスリム人口はドレスデン総人口の
1パーセントにも満たないのです。
ここには、モスクが3つしかなく、金曜日の礼拝集会は
いつも満員です。

Mosque, Dresden

[モスクにて]

男性スピーカー :
首相は、イスラム教はドイツの一部だが
イスラム教の真の姿を人々に示す責任が、まず、
ムスリムにはあると言っています。

Mosque speaker

JP:
( 参列が終わり出てきた参列者に)
どんな礼拝でしたか?

参列者:
良いイスラム教徒として、非イスラム教徒、、、
キリスト教徒やユダヤ教徒達の隣で暮らす事の重要さについてです。

Tolerance

JP:
つまり、寛容についてのメッセージですね?

参列者:
そう、それ、寛容ですよ。
みなを受け入れることが今日のテーマでした。

[礼拝の後]

Mohamed Gadou :
今は、心中おだやかじゃないですね。
妻や子どもが街に出て行くとき怖いんですよ。
亡命者だけが危うい立場にあるんじゃありません。
私は、もうドイツの国籍を持って長いんですが、
私でも不安ですから。

Mohamed Gadou

MK :
私はドレスデン出身なんですけど、妻が黒人で、
私も今怖いですから、おっしゃることは、よくわかります。
本当に、そうですよね。
敵意に満ちた雰囲気がありますよね。

Showing photo

男性 :
( スマフォの写真を見せながら )
これ、息子なんですけど、通りがかりの人が
「外人」って呼ぶんですよ。
でも、ご覧になればわかるように息子はドイツ人なんです。
ドイツのパスポートを持っていますし母親はドイツ人なんです。

[ドイツ郊外、PEGIDA支持者の家]

Ines Thietz-Bartman

Ines Thietz-Bartman ( ITB ) :
私は資格をもった機械工学者ですが、子どもが4人いますし
夫の稼ぎで生活できるので、専業主婦をしています。
ここには、難民申請が通らなかったのに、まだ、そのまま
居残り続ける難民がいるんです。
それが、私が、この運動に参加することにした理由です。
私は、ムスリムにも、外国人にも異論はないんです。
でも、イスラム教は…なんって言えばいいんでしょう…
Ines Thietz-Bartman
何か、危険なものを感じるんですよね…。
若い難民は暴力的ですし。
「汚らしいドイツ人」って私達を侮辱する難民もいるんです。

JP :
街で誰かに「汚らしいドイツ人」って呼ばれたことがありますか?

ITB :
私自身は無いですけど、友人が、そう呼ばれたんです。

JP :
ご自身を極右だと思いますか?

ITB :
いいえ、まったく。

Ines Thietz-Bartman

JP:
( 旗を見せられて )
それを持ってデモに行くんですか?

ITB :
これは、キリスト教のシンボルです。
私達はキリスト教国家に住んでいますが、
ユダヤの伝統もありますから。
( と、小さいイスラエルの国旗を指す )

Flags

ナレーション :
私達は、InesのようにPEGIDAのデモに行きました。
今回の集会には、それほどの人数は集まらないだろうと
思われていましたが、オペラ座前の広場には、
1万7千人もの人が集まっていました。
ジャーナリストは、歓迎されていませんが、
とりあえず、参加者の意見を聞きに行きました。

PEGIDA Manifestation

JP :
Guten Tag!
フランスのメディアなんですけど…
( 無視、拒否、避けられまくるJP、、
デモの中心に近づくとアグレッシブな反応が増える )

デモ群衆:
メディアはウソつきだ!( と、繰り返す )

Presse mensongère!

JP:
( Inesさんに )
ここに集まった人たちが、皆、あなたのように穏やかなわけじゃないですね。
私達の後ろにいる抗議者は、私達がここにいるのを嫌がっているようですし。

男性:
彼らはメディアが嫌いなんですよ。
この活動に、いつもメガティブな見方しかしませんからね。
20かそこらの報道がありましたが、どれも
いいようにバイアスをかけて編集しているんです。
だから、嘘つきメディアと呼んでいるんですよ。

Julien Pain, PEGIDA manifestation, Dresden

ナレーション:
デモには、幅広い社会層の人々が集まりました。
キリスト教的な価値観をもつ保守的な中流階級
食べて行くのにに必死な労働者
そして、ネオ・ナチ…。
デモの間は、話を聞くのが無理だったので
私達は、地元のDynamo Dresdenサッカークラブの試合へ
隠しカメラを持ってウルトラ・サポーターと呼ばれる人々を
撮影しに行きました。
極右翼活動と関係が深く、中には、PEGIDA活動の骨幹を成す人々もいます。

男性1:
PEGIDAのデモ集会に参加したから極右だって言う人がいますが
馬鹿げていますよ。

男性2:
ほんとですよ。
ある黒人の男性が、いつも、PEGIDAの行進の先頭にいるんですけど
ジャーナリストは、絶対に、それを報道しないんですからね。

supporters

男性3:
移民達ときたら、信じられませんよ!
来るのは、いつも男だけ。
絶対に家族は連れて来ないんです。
家族は、どこにいるんでしょう。
移民達は問題ばかり起こし、豚のように振る舞うんです。

男性4:
ドイツは、難民政策を変える必要があります。
亡命申請は、もっと、速やかに処理しなくては。

Supporter

男性5:
えぇ、確かに、良い暮らしを求めて来る移民もいますが
でも、ドイツの( 福祉 ) システムや法律を熟知している人もいるんです。
ここの生活がラクだってね。
何もせずダラダラと過ごしながら福祉制度の恩恵を受けれるってね。

Dynamo Dresden

ナレーション:
外国人恐怖症の背後には、(社会 ) 全体に増す不満があります。
デモ参加者達は、経済や、移民政策を支持し続ける政治家達から
見捨てられたように感じているのです。
私達は、ドレスデン市庁のスポークスマンに
当局が、この広がる不寛容さにどう対処するつもりなのかを
聞きに行きました。

JP:
デモに参加する人達は、難民や移民だけが問題であると、
彼らだけに目を向けていますが、それは間違っていると思いますか?

Kai Schultz

ドレスデン市庁スポークスマン
Kai Schulz ( KS ) :
私は、間違っていると思います。
難民や移民は問題ではないのです。
外国人がドレスデン(人口)に占める割合は実は非常に低いんです。
問題は、外国人に対する恐怖心です。
外国人に対する人々の理解を深め、なぜ
難民達がドイツやドレスデンに来るか、
難民は怖くないのだと、説明する必要があります。

Julien Pain, Kai Schultz

JP :
このPEGIDA運動は危険だと思いますか?

KS :
危険だとは思いません。
人に対しても組織に対しても真の脅威とはなっていません
けれども、非常に重要な問題を提議しています。
移民達がもっと社会に溶けこめるような対策が必要なんですが
問題は、亡命申請中の就職を特例を除いて認めていない法制度です。

ナレーション:
そして、ドイツの政治家が他の事に忙しそうにしている間、
一般市民達は、(PEGIDA運動への)反対活動を行っています。
例えば、PEGIDAデモの翌日には、
ドイツの有名なミュージシャン達が人種差別反対コンサートやを開催し
少なくとも2万人が参加したのです。
そこには、Marvinと奥さんも、いました。
ドイツ人と外国人が幸せに暮らせるという証拠ですが、
彼らには、わかっているのです。
PEGIDAが、最近起こった現象ではあっても、その前から、
その元となる外国人恐怖症が、はびこっていて、
すぐには、なくなりそうもないことを。

Anti PEGIDA concert

KaylaさんとMuath中尉と東京大空襲(追記2)

Video
KaylaさんとMuath中尉と東京大空襲(追記2)

*Kayla Muellerさんから家族へ託された手紙のスクリーンショットと英文を追記しました。
*続報は、2月11日「Kayla Muellerさん、その後の報道」を、どうぞ

ISIS claims American hostage killed by Jordanian airstrike in Syria

昨日、ISISにより、ヨルダンの空爆で亡くなったと発表された
アメリカ人エイドワーカーのケイラ・ミュラーさん( Kayla Mueller )
「証拠が無い」
「ISISの言う事は全く信頼に値しない」
「金曜日の祈りの時間だったのでISIS兵士には全く被害が無く
亡くなったのは彼女だけというのは明らかに怪しい」
…と、ヨルダン及びアメリカの政府も
CNNニュースに出た英国名門大学LSEの教授も否定しておりますが
ムアズ中尉の時のような
「生きている証拠」ならばともかく
ここで論じられているのは
「死んだという証拠」
あるいは
「ヨルダンの空爆で亡くなった証拠」
と、つまり
確実に亡くなっているのを前提にして言っているのですから
まだ生きていると希望をよせていらっしゃるご両親にとっては
非常に辛い報道ではないでしょうか?
アリゾナ・プレスコットの街に出始めた
Pray for Kayla ( ケイラのために祈りを ) の立て看板のように
祈りを捧げます…。

Kayla Mueller

実は、
つい数日前
去年の4月に解放されたフランス人ジャーナリスト4人のうちの1人
デディエ・フランソワ ( Didier François ) さんが、
CNNのインタビューの冒頭で「26歳のアメリカ人人質」について聞かれ
彼女の見に危険が及ぶので詳しい事は言えないが…
と断った上で、女性の人質たちは、
手錠もされていなかったし、男性よりは若干自由があったが
非常に恐ろしい状態にあったことには変わりがない、
料理を作るよう強制される時もあった…などと答えていましたので
昨日、ケイラさんのニュースが出て来た時には非常に驚きました。

ISIS captors cared little about religion, says former hostage

10 months as an ISIS hostage

ケイラ・ミュラーさんは、18ヶ月前、2013年8月4日、
シリアのアレッポ ( Aleppo ) で、ボーイフレンドも含むシリア人
エイドワーカー達と一緒に、拘束され、シリア人達が全員解放された後、
Reuters報道( 家族からは未確認の情報 ) では
去年の7月12日に
5百万ユーロ ( 約660万ドル )の身代金を払うか、
アル・カーイダとの繋がりを疑われFBI調査官などの射殺未遂で
テキサスで86年の刑に服役中のパキスタン神経科学者
アーフィア・シディキ( Aafia Siddiqui ) を釈放しなければ
30日以内に処刑すると警告されていたものの
シディキ釈放運動のムスリム活動家サーラカーン( Saalakhan )氏によると
シディキ一家からミュラーさんの助命嘆願書が送られ、
一命をとりとめていたということ。
また、Daily Mailの報道では、
去年、同僚のエイドワーカー達に送られた身代金要求ビデオの
ミュラーさんはブルカ姿 ( 女性イスラム教徒の髪や体を覆い隠す服装 )
だったそうです。

ところで、
ミューラーさんが、最後のアメリカ人人質、と書かれている記事が、結構、あったのですが
つまり、国籍も名前も公表されていない赤十字国際委員会職員3名の人質の中には、
アメリカ人は、いない、という事をアメリカ政府や報道機関は把握しているということになります。
Aafia Siddiqi
アーフィア・シディキ( Aafia Siddiqi )博士

それから、
ムアズ中尉の最期の動画の大部分は空爆への批判で占められ、
動画の最後には、空爆に参加するヨルダン空軍将校達の情報が写真付きで詳しく載せられ、
彼らの殺害賞金まで出されていましたし、
空爆で死亡した子ども達の写真や、瓦礫に埋れて亡くなった遺体の写真など
空爆で焼け死んだり生き埋めになった人達への報復として、
ムアズ中尉にも火をつけブルドーザーで檻の上から瓦礫を落として遺体を埋める…と
あたかも空爆の被害を再現するような方法で、
明確に空爆と関連付けていました。

こんな事を申し上げるのは恐縮ですが
東京大空襲でも、こうやって、多くのかたが
犠牲になったんだな…と
ISISに明らかにサディスティックなメンバー達がいるのは承知したうえで
なお、空爆というものは、こうやって、人を殺すものなのだ…とも
感じざるを得なかったのです。

もちろん、それが、この ゲーム Call of Duty によく似た
「プロパガンダ」動画の狙いでもあるのでしょうが、
空襲や原爆を体験した親達の子世代の東京人としては
やはり、空爆に対する複雑な感情は抑え切れません。

1945年3月10日の東京大空襲で
どれだけの東京市民が、老若男女
米軍の焼夷弾で、直接、あるいは
身動きが取れない火の海の中、一瞬にして身を焼かれたか…

ムアズ中尉のように、
シリア政府軍の空爆を受けるAleppo市民の様に
あらゆる紛争地域の市民の様に…

tokyo daikuushuu 東京大空襲

US Air Force Bombing of Tokyo, 10 Mar 1945
( Incendiary bombs were specifically developed and used )

東京大空襲

「Dresden Bombing 70 Years On ドレスデン大空襲70周年」
https://canarin.wordpress.com/dresden/

【記事リンク】
ロイター報道

Islamic State ‘sentenced’ U.S. hostage to death last year – activist

非常に詳しい写真満載の英紙Daily Mail報道


ISIS claims that female American aid worker who has been held hostage for 18 months has died in Jordanian air strike – but minister insists it’s a ‘PR stunt’ by jihadis

・ISIS militants claim Kayla Jean Mueller was killed in a Jordanian air strike
・Jordanian officials tonight dismissed statement as group’s ‘latest PR stunt’
・The 26-year-old is understood to be last US hostage held by terror group
・She and her Syrian boyfriend were captured in Aleppo in August 2013
・ISIS had reportedly been demanding $6.6 million for her release and last year sent a video of her pleading for her life to her aid worker colleagues
・Mueller was apparently seen completely covered by a burqa in the video
・US officials said they have seen ‘no evidence that corroborates’ ISIS’ claim

2013年5月に、お父さんが会員になっているKiwanis Clubで
体験談を話した時の地元の新聞The Daily Courierの報道

Prescott woman gives aid to Syrian refugees

ヨルダン政府の反応

Jordanian Spokesman: We are very suspicious of ISIS claim

CNNの取材に答えるLSEの教授

ISIS claims Jordan airstrike killed U.S. female hostage

【追記1】

Kayla Mueller Letter

【追記2】

On Tuesday, the family also released a copy of an unpublished letter Kayla wrote to her loved ones in the Spring of 2014, while in captivity:
‘Everyone, If you are receiving this letter it means I am still detained but my cell mates (starting from 11/2/2014) have been released. I have asked them to contact you + send you this letter. It’s hard to know what to say.
‘Please know that I am in a safe location, completely unharmed + healthy(put on weight in fact); I have been treated w/ the utmost respect + kindness. I wanted to write you all a well thought out letter (but I didn’t know if my cellmates would be leaving in the coming days or the coming months restricting my time but primarily) I could only but write the letter a paragraph at a time, just the thought of you all sends me into a fit of tears.
‘If you could say I have ‘suffered’ at all throughout this whole experience it is only in knowing how much suffering I have put you all through; I will never ask you to forgive me as I do not deserve forgiveness.
‘I remember mom always telling me that all in all in the end the only one you really have is God. I have come to a place in experience where, in every sense of the word, I have surrendered myself to our creator b/c literally there was no else….+ by God + by your prayers I have felt tenderly cradled in freefall. I have been shown in darkness, light + have learned that even in prison, one can be free. I am grateful.
‘I have come to see that there is good in every situation, sometimes we just have to look for it. I pray each each day that if nothing else, you have felt a certain closeness + surrender to God as well + have formed a bond of love + support amongst one another…
‘I miss you all as if it has been a decade of forced separation. I have had many a long hour to think, to think of all the things I will do w/ Lex, our first family camping trip, the first meeting @ the airport. I have had many hours to think how only in your absence have I finally @ 25 years old come to realize your place in my life.
‘The gift that is each one of you + the person I could + could not be if you were not a part of my life, my family, my support. I DO NOT want the negotiations for my release to be your duty, if there is any other option take it, even if it takes more time. This should never have become your burden. I have asked these women to support you; please seek their advice. If you have not done so already, [REDACTED] can contact [REDACTED] who may have a certain level of experience with these people.
‘None of us could have known it would be this long but know I am also fighting from my side in the ways I am able + I have a lot of fight left inside of me. I am not breaking down + I will not give in no matter how long it takes.
‘I wrote a song some months ago that says, ‘The part of me that pains the most also gets me out of bed, w/out your hope there would be nothing left…’ aka -­ The thought of your pain is the source of my own, simultaneously the hope of our reunion is the source of my strength.
‘Please be patient, give your pain to God. I know you would want me to remain strong. That is exactly what I am doing. Do not fear for me, continue to pray as will I + by God’s will we will be together soon.
‘All my everything,
‘Kayla’

以上、英紙Daily Mailより
‘I have a lot of fight left inside of me’:
American ISIS hostage Kayla Mueller’s last letter from captivity reveals
her determination to survive as her death is confirmed

この後の報道は
2月11日「Kayla Muellerさん、その後の報道」を、どうぞ